Biocentrism (Greek bios: life) is represented, for example, by Paul W. Taylor and Hans Jonas. Both adopt a teleological (goal-oriented) approach, claiming that all living organisms strive for self-preservation and reproduction, i.e. to achieve their natural aims in life. According to Jonas, every living organism is an end in itself and thus valuable. Human beings must therefore do justice to the responsibility they have towards all living beings and act in a way that is conducive to the thriving of every species in accordance with the goals that it pursues.

Jonas, H. (1985): The imperative of responsibility. In search of an ethics for the technological age. Chicago / London: The University of Chicago Press.

Taylor, P. W. (1986): Respect for Nature. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Taylor, P. W. (1996): The ethics of respect for nature. In: Olen, J. / Barry, V. (eds.): Applying Ethics. Belmont: Wadsworth, 465–475.

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