Total economic value of biodiversity

Direct Use Value
The direct use value of biodiversity results from the above-mentioned uses, e.g. in the areas of food security, pharmaceutical development and production, or bio-inspection.

Indirect Use Value
The indirect use value of biological diversity can be derived from its function in maintaining the above-mentioned ecosystem services which in turn serve to satisfy human needs.

Option Value
The option value of biodiversity refers to the fact that, in the future, human beings will probably have to rely on the use of biological species diversity to satisfy newly emerging needs or to cope with new challenges, like as yet unknown pests in agriculture, or unknown diseases.

Perceived Use Value
The perceived use value of biological diversity is reflected by people's readiness to spend economic goods out of altruistic motives, in order that "other members of the current generation may benefit from the different components of biodiversity." (SB, p. 89).

Bequest Value
The bequest value refers to the readiness of current mankind to spend goods in order to preserve biological diversity and its components for future generations.

Existence Value
The existence value, on the other hand, relates to the valuation of biological diversity for its own sake, and is reflected in donations for nature conservation and environment protection.

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