Genotoxic damage is defined as changes in DNA caused by chemical substances or physical effects (e.g. UV or X-rays). These can result in a gene mutation, e.g. by insertion or deletion of one or more bases. DNA repair enzymes can often repair the effects, so not every genotoxic event results in a change in the base sequence. If this is unsuccessful, a mutation may occur, possibly resulting in cancer (carcinogenesis) and malformations (teratogenesis).

For further literature see:

Bürkle, A. / Debiak, M. (2013): Genotoxikologie. In: Marquardt, H. / Schäfer, S. G. / Barth, H. (eds.): Toxikologie. 3., vollst. überarb. und erw. Aufl. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 133–158. (German)

Baum, M. (2006): Genotoxizität. In: Römpp Online, Stuttgart: Thieme. Online Version (German)

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